The FIDE Laws of Chess

Article 13:  The role of the arbiter (see Preface

13.1   The arbiter shall see that the Laws of Chess are strictly observed. 

13.2  The arbiter shall act in the best interest of the competition. He should ensure that a good playing environment is maintained and that the players are not disturbed. He shall supervise the progress of the competition. 

13.3  The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players are short of time, enforce decisions he has made and impose penalties on 
players where appropriate. 

13.4  The arbiter can apply one or more of the following penalties: 

  • a.  warning, 
  • b.  increasing the remaining time of the opponent, 
  • c.  reducing the remaining time of the offending player, 
  • d.  declaring the game to be lost, 
  • e.  reducing the points scored in a game by the offending party, 
  • f.  increasing the points scored in a game by the opponent to the maximum available for that game, 
  • g.  expulsion from the event. 
13.5  The arbiter may award either or both players additional time in the event of external disturbance of the game. 

13.6  The arbiter must not intervene in a game except in cases described by the Laws of Chess. He shall not indicate the number of moves made, except in applying Article 8.5, when at least one player has used all his time. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a player that his opponent has completed a move. 

13.7  Spectators and players in other games are not to speak about or otherwise interfere in a game. If necessary, the arbiter may expel offenders from the playing venue.